Monday, January 25, 2021

James R. Flynn, Who Found We Are Getting Smarter, Dies at 86

James R. Flynn, Who Found We Are Getting Smarter, Dies at 86
https://flip.it/HQ6wrM

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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The secular trend of intelligence test scores in the present century: The Danish experience - ScienceDirect

 The secular trend of intelligence test scores in the present century: The Danish experience - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S016028962100009X

Highlights


Changes in mean intelligence test scores were minimal in Denmark in 2006–2019.

A change in the format of the intelligence test resulted in a sudden drop in scores.

Neither changes in parental age, dysgenics, or immigration can explain the findings.

Changes in sample composition may conceal a true decline in intelligence test scores.

Abstract
The present register-based study investigated the secular trend of intelligence test scores during the period from 2006 through 2019 in a Danish population-representative sample, as well as whether the observed trend could be explained by changes in parental age, dysgenics, and immigration or changes in the format of the intelligence test and sample characteristics. The study population consisted of all Danish men appearing before a draft board during the study period (N = 400,288). Intelligence test scores were obtained by the use of Børge Priens Prøve, typically at age 19. For each of the included draft board cohorts, the intelligence test score mean and standard deviation were estimated. The results showed that changes in mean intelligence test scores were minimal during the study period. A slight decline was observed from 2006 to 2010. Furthermore, there was a drop of 1.5 IQ points from 2010 to 2011, which coincided with the change in the format of the intelligence test from paper-and-pencil to computer-based, but there was essentially no change after 2011. Neither changes in parental age, dysgenics, or immigration seem to have influenced the observations. However, changes in sample composition may conceal a true decline in intelligence test scores given that a larger proportion of individuals with low intelligence seems to be exempted from testing. In conclusion, the study findings suggest no systematic change in intelligence test scores during the last decade, but due to changes in sample composition, it cannot be excluded that there has been a negative secular trend.

Thursday, January 21, 2021

Webinar on new AAIDD classification manual

https://www.aaidd.org/education/event-details/2021/01/28/default-calendar/intellectual-disability-definition-diagnosis-classification-and-systems-of-supports-12th-edition



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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, January 19, 2021

AAIDD Announces the Publication of the 12th Edition of its Manual

https://www.aaidd.org/news-policy/news/article/2021/01/15/aaidd-announces-the-publication-of-the-12th-edition-of-its-manual

Friday, January 15, 2021

12th Edition of the AAIDD Manual Now Available!



 

 

Intellectual Disability: Definition, Diagnosis, Classification, and Systems of Supports, 12th Edition, has just been published and can be purchased from our bookstore.

All professionals in the field need this important reference book, which integrates the findings and developments of the last 10 years in a systematic approach to diagnosis, optional subgroup classification, and planning of systems of supports for people with ID.

In addition, the 12th edition examines the construct of age of onset as a criterion in diagnosis and presents the operational definition in a way that will be critically important to professionals in the field.

Buy your copy now in the AAIDD Bookstore!

 

To explore our other titles, visit our online bookstore by clicking here.

Members get even more savings!
Join or Renew AAIDD Membership for Journal Access and Discounts

on All AAIDD Books & Curriculum

**Members: Login for your member discount to also be applied at checkout**

American Association on Intellectual
and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)
8403 Colesville Road, Suite 900
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Telephone: 202-387-1968
Fax: 202-387-2193
www.aaidd.org


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Friday, December 11, 2020

No negative Flynn effect in France: Why variations of intelligence should not be assessed using tests based on cultural knowledge - ScienceDirect

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289620300908

Abstract
In 2015, Dutton and Lynn published an account of a decrease of intelligence in France (negative Flynn effect) which had considerable societal impact. This decline was argued to be biological. However, there is good reason to be skeptical of these conclusions. The claim of intelligence decline was based on the finding of lower scores on the WAIS-III (normed in 1999) for a recent sample, but careful examination of the data suggests that this decline was in fact limited to subtests with a strong influence of culture-dependent declarative knowledge. In Study 1, we re-analyzed the data used by Dutton and Lynn (2015) and showed that only subtests of the WAIS primarily assessing cultural knowledge (Gc) demonstrated a significant decline. Study 2 replicated this finding and confirmed that performance was constant on other subtests. An analysis of differential item functioning in the five subtests with a decline showed that about one fourth of all items were significantly more difficult for subjects in a recent sample than in the original normative sample, for an equal level of ability. Decline on a subtest correlated 0.95 with its cultural load. These results confirm that there is currently no evidence for a decrease of intelligence in France, with prior findings being attributable to a drift of item difficulty for older versions of the WAIS, due to cultural changes. This highlights the role of culture in Wechsler's intelligence tests and indicates that when interpreting (negative) Flynn effects, the past should really be treated as a different country.

Tuesday, November 17, 2020

Atkins related court decision: Pervus Payne Tennessee case



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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Thursday, November 5, 2020

Symposium: The Growing Impact of the Supreme Court Shadow Docket on Death Penalty Cases https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/news/symposium-the-growing-impact-of-the-supreme-court-shadow-docket-on-death-penalty-cases

Symposium: The Growing Impact of the Supreme Court Shadow Docket on Death Penalty Cases https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/news/symposium-the-growing-impact-of-the-supreme-court-shadow-docket-on-death-penalty-cases

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Friday, October 30, 2020

Every second counts: A comparison of four dot counting test scoring procedures for detecting invalid neuropsychological test performance. - PsycNET

 Every second counts: A comparison of four dot counting test scoring procedures for detecting invalid neuropsychological test performance. - PsycNET 
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-79118-001

Citation
Rhoads, T., Resch, Z. J., Ovsiew, G. P., White, D. J., Abramson, D. A., & Soble, J. R. (2020). Every second counts: A comparison of four dot counting test scoring procedures for detecting invalid neuropsychological test performance. Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000970

Abstract
Although performance validity tests (PVTs) are an integral element of neuropsychological assessment, most PVTs have historically been restricted to the memory domain. The Dot Counting Test (DCT) is a nonmemory PVT shown to reliably identify invalid performance. Although several traditional and abbreviated scoring methods have been derived, no study to date has directly compared the available scoring approaches within a single sample. This cross-sectional study cross-validated 4 different DCT scoring approaches, including the traditional rounded E-score proposed within the manual, an unrounded E-score, and 2 abbreviated scoring procedures based on 4- and 6-card versions (DCT-4 and DCT-6, respectively) in a diverse mixed clinical neuropsychiatric sample (N = 132). Validity groups were established by 5 independent criterion PVTs (102 valid and 30 invalid). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses yielded significant areas under the curve (AUCs = .84−.86) for the overall sample, with sensitivities of 50%–67% at ≥ 89% specificity. The DCT scores had outstanding classification accuracy (AUCs ≥ .92; sensitivities = 80%−83%) in the unimpaired group and excellent classification accuracy in the impaired group (AUCs = .79−.81; sensitivities = 43%−60%). Whereas negligible differences emerged between the 4 scoring methods for the cognitively intact group, the DCT-4 showed notably stronger psychometric properties among the overall sample in general and the mild cognitive impairment group in particular. Results corroborate previous findings suggesting that the DCT is a robust PVT, regardless of the employed scoring procedure, and replicate support for the abbreviated DCT-4 as the recommended validity indicator. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Sunday, September 27, 2020

Atkins intellectual disability court decisions: Texas Court of Criminal Appeals reverses decisions on two Atkins cases - Webster and Guevara


 

Twice in the past few weeks, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals has reversed adverse prior decisions regarding Atkins intellectual disability death penalty decisions.

Click here for Webster (2020)

Click here for Guevara (2020)

Prior documents and decisions related to these two cases can be found in the court decisions blog roll on the right-hand side of this blog. 

 

Friday, September 18, 2020

Juan Lizcano's Texas death sentence tossed due to intellectual disability | The Texas Tribune

https://www.texastribune.org/2020/09/16/juan-lizcano-texas-death-row/

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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, September 8, 2020

CA legislature changes definition of ID to not allow Heaton or demographically-adjusted IQ test norms.

The California Legislature has changed the definition of ID  to be less racially biased.  In particular, it now bans the use of  demographically adjusted or "Heaton" norms.    See story here...where a link is provided to download the PDF.



Monday, August 24, 2020

'Man is Opposed to Fair Play': An Empirical Analysis of How the Fifth Circuit Has Failed to Take Seriously Atkins v. Virginia by Michael L. Perlin, Talia Roitberg Harmon, Sarah Wetzel :: SSRN

 'Man is Opposed to Fair Play': An Empirical Analysis of How the Fifth Circuit Has Failed to Take Seriously Atkins v. Virginia by Michael L. Perlin, Talia Roitberg Harmon, Sarah Wetzel :: SSRN 
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3660564

A more finalized version of this paper which I posted about recently.

Wednesday, August 5, 2020

Welcome to Channel g. Dr. Andrew Conway on Intelligence. Stay tuned

Welcome to Channel g
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/channel-g/202008/welcome-channel-g

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Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
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Atkins Court Decision: Phillips v Florida (2020)



Phillips v Florida (2020) is available here.

Prior information related to Phillips (2008) can be found here.

“Man is Opposed to Fair Play”: An Empirical Analysis of How the Fifth Circuit Has Failed to Take Seriously Atkins v. Virginia - Perlin et al. (2020)

Copy of this new article available here.

Below is a copy of the conclusion


VI. Conclusion

 

The database we have considered here is infinitely depressing. There was only actual relief in 12.4% of the cases that raised Atkins issues, and this grouping of nine cases includes two in which the defendant died before the final relief could be implemented. What it reveals is a Court with little or no interest in the thoughtful opinions of Justice Stevens in Atkins and of Justice Kennedy in Hall. The science is ignored, and the jurisprudence is ignored. Baseless fears of undetected malingering, the mindless use of lay stereotypes of what “looks like” remorse, and the corrupt employment of “ethnic adjustments” to lawlessly raise IQ scores making certain minority defendants improperly eligible for execution all are reflected in the cases decided by the Fifth Circuit. Certainly, the earlier conclusion reached by Professor John Blume and his colleagues (in their empirical study of all Atkins claims) – that “Atkins is not evenhandedly protecting those it was designed to protect”296—rings as true today as it did when written eleven years ago. On the other hand, the cases reveal important potential strategies for defense counsel: (1) It is essential that allegations of malingering be vigorously rebutted through expert testimony; (2) even though the Fifth Circuit has not yet acknowledged its scientific validity, the Flynn effect must be brought to the Court’s attention, (3) the defendant should be given a WAIS test, and the WISC test must be avoided, (4) the use of lay stereotypes of “showing remorse” must be firmly discredited. If these are all done, then there is at least some chance that Atkins and its progeny will be given life in subsequent cases.

Monday, August 3, 2020

The Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project: Overview and considerations for life span research and evidence-based practice: The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Vol 0, No 0

 The Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project: Overview and considerations for life span research and evidence-based practice: The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Vol 0, No 0 
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13854046.2020.1794046

Objective

This paper summarizes the findings of the Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project and offers a roadmap for future research.

Methods

The NP-NUMBRS project represents the largest and most comprehensive co-normed neuropsychological battery to date for native Spanish-speaking healthy adults from the U.S. (California/Arizona)-Mexico borderland region (N = 254; ages 19–60 years). These norms provide demographic adjustments for tests across numerous domains (i.e., verbal fluency, processing speed, attention/working memory, executive function, episodic memory [learning and delayed recall], visuospatial, and fine motor skills).

Conclusions

This project: 1) shows that the NP-NUMBRS norms consistently outperformed previously published norms for English-speaking non-Hispanic (White and African-American) adults in identifying impairment; 2) explores the role of Spanish-English bilingualism in test performance; and 3) provides support for the diagnostic validity of these norms in detecting HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. Study limitations include the limited assessment of sociocultural variables and generalizability (e.g., other Latina/o populations, age limit [19 − 60 years]). Future research is needed to: 1) investigate these norms with U.S.-dwelling Spanish-speakers of non-Mexican heritage and other clinical subpopulations; 2) expand coverage of cognitive domains (e.g. language, visuospatial); 3) develop large normative datasets for children and older Latina/o populations; 4) examine how sociocultural factors impact performance (e.g., bilingualism, acculturation); 5) investigate these norms' diagnostic and ecological validity; and 6) develop norms for neurocognitive change across time. It is hoped that the NP-NUMBRS norms will aid researchers and clinicians working with U.S.-dwelling Spanish-speakers from the U.S.-Mexico borderland to conduct research and evidence-based neuropsychological evaluations in a more culturally responsive and ethical manner.

Friday, July 31, 2020

State analysis of ID death penalty cases



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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
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Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Race, Intellectual Disability, and Death: An Empirical Inquiry into Invidious Influences on Atkins Determinations Part 1: Latinx Communities, Race, and the Criminal Justice System 66 UCLA Law Review 2019

Race, Intellectual Disability, and Death: An Empirical Inquiry into Invidious Influences on Atkins Determinations Part 1: Latinx Communities, Race, and the Criminal Justice System 66 UCLA Law Review 2019 .  Click here



Tuesday, June 16, 2020

Death Penalty Cases | SpringerLink

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-44470-9_7

Death Penalty Cases

  • Lenore E. WalkerEmail author
  • David Shapiro
  • Stephanie Akl
  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
Chapter
  • 7Downloads

Abstract

In 1986, the USSC ruled that it was a violation of the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution (cruel and unusual punishment) to execute someone who was 'insane'. (Ford v. Wainwright) In capital cases, a sentencing proceeding has, for many years, consisted of a jury hearing 'aggravating factors' from the state and 'mitigating factors' from the defense. Defense attorneys are now able to proffer someone's mental health history as a possible mitigating factor in capital cases, arguing that the mental illness played some role in the commission of the crime, and that therefore, the defendant should be sentenced to life imprisonment rather than death. A case called Eddings v. Oklahoma (1982) argued in front of the USSC resulted in a finding that the defense is entitled to use any possible mitigating evidence in a capital trial. Of course, the prosecution wants to present a strong case for capital punishment and therefore will present aggravating factors that include the defendant's propensity for violent behavior. Unfortunately, all too often these predictions of dangerousness are made in expert testimony where the expert is unaware of the real limitations documented in the research of predicting future violent behavior. In 2002, the USSC ruled that it was unconstitutional (again Eighth Amendment violation) to execute a mentally retarded defendant (Atkins v. Virginia). Unfortunately, several individual states adopted rather idiosyncratic definitions of mental retardation and some allowed the artificial inflation of I.Q. scores based on testimony that it was an 'ethnic adjustment'. This chapter describes some of the ways mental health professionals can work in death penalty clinics with defense attorneys or with state prosecutors on these cases.

Keywords

Mitigators Aggravators Eddings v. Oklahoma Mental retardation Ethnic adjustment Eighth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution Habeas petition 

Saturday, May 30, 2020

Multidimensional Malingering Criteria for Neuropsychological Assessment: A 20-Year Update of the Malingered Neuropsychological Dysfunction Criteria | Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology | Oxford Academic

Multidimensional Malingering Criteria for Neuropsychological Assessment: A 20-Year Update of the Malingered Neuropsychological Dysfunction Criteria | Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology | Oxford Academic
https://academic.oup.com/acn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/arclin/acaa019/5830790

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Florida Supreme Court reverses itself on death-penalty issue | Miami Herald

Florida Supreme Court reverses itself on death-penalty issue | Miami Herald
https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/crime/article242897781.html

Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis: School Psychology Review: Vol 0, No 0

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/2372966X.2020.1717374?journalCode=uspr20

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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
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Friday, May 8, 2020

Yet another Texas execution postponed, though purportedly not for COVID reasons https://sentencing.typepad.com/sentencing_law_and_policy/2020/05/yet-another-texas-execution-postponed-though-purportedly-not-for-covid-reasons.html

Yet another Texas execution postponed, though purportedly not for COVID reasons https://sentencing.typepad.com/sentencing_law_and_policy/2020/05/yet-another-texas-execution-postponed-though-purportedly-not-for-covid-reasons.html

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

In Case Permeated with Race Bias, Tennessee Plans to Execute Possibly Innocent and Intellectually Disabled Black Man in Murder of White Woman | Death Penalty Information Center

https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/news/in-case-permeated-with-race-bias-tennessee-plans-to-execute-possibly-innocent-and-intellectually-disabled-black-man-in-murder-of-white-woman

Monday, March 23, 2020

Georgias Atkins death penalty op-ed

American Constitution Society
Georgia's Unconstitutional Standard for Determining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases
By Sara Totonchi, March 20, 2020
Executive Director of the Southern Center for Human Rights and member of ACS Georgia Chapter Board of Advisors

In 1986, the state of Georgia executed Jerome Bowden, a man with a full-scale IQ of 65. While Bowden was strapped to the electric chair, he thanked the prison for taking good care of him. State officials faced widespread criticism for the execution and vowed to ensure that the state would not execute a defendant with intellectual disability again. Two years later, the state passed a law prohibiting such executions.

It's shocking to think that since the passage of the law 32 years ago, there has never been a single finding of intellectual disability at a trial involving intentional murder in Georgia. There is a simple reason for this: Georgia is the only state in the country that requires capital defendants to prove their intellectual disability beyond a reasonable doubt.

Long after Georgia enacted its law, the U.S. Supreme Court made clear in Atkins v. Virginia that the Eighth Amendment prohibits the execution of defendants with intellectual disability. However, Georgia's unique standard means that, notwithstanding the Court's decision in Atkins, the state still is doing just that. This unconstitutional practice has to stop. That is why our office, the Southern Center for Human Rights, along with the Roderick & Solange MacArthur Justice Center, filed an amicus brief in Raulerson v. Warden, No. 19-941, urging the Court to invalidate Georgia's standard. As we explained in our brief, there are three primary reasons as to why the Court should declare Georgia's statute unconstitutional.

First, there has not been a single finding of intellectual disability at trial in a case involving intentional murder in Georgia. In the words of one Eleventh Circuit judge, Georgia's onerous statute "demands a level of certainty that medical experts simply cannot provide." Because of this, capital defendants in Georgia do not have a meaningful opportunity to prove that they fall within the scope of Atkins.

Second, Georgia does not impose this standard for intellectual disability in any other context. For instance, in the education context, a student can be placed into special education as long as a comprehensive evaluation indicates intellectual deficits. In the social services context, an individual is eligible for disability services if she receives a diagnosis of intellectual disability. In both instances, the evaluation conforms with accepted medical standards. Georgia imposes an unattainable standard for proving intellectual disability only in the death penalty context—when the stakes are the highest.

Finally, it is clear that Georgia is not going to amend its statute to conform with the Constitution's demands. The Georgia Supreme Court has repeatedly upheld the statute as constitutional. And the Georgia Legislature has consistently resisted efforts to change the standard, including as recently as 2018. Legislators have recognized that Georgia is an outlier, but nothing will change unless the Supreme Court intervenes.

The Court has warned that, if states are permitted "to define intellectual disability as they wished, the Court's decision in Atkins could become a nullity, and the Eighth Amendment's protection of human dignity would not become a reality." Georgia has confirmed the Court's fear. Warren Hill could not prove his disability, even though every expert agreed that he was intellectually disabled. Hill was executed. Willie Palmer could not prove his disability, even though he struggled to put his shoes on the correct feet. Palmer remains on death row. And Billy Raulerson also could not prove his disability, even though testimony at his trial indicated that he functions at the level of a 12-year-old. Raulerson is now at risk of execution.

The state of Georgia has executed an individual with intellectual disability, and it will do so again so long as it employs its unconstitutional standard. The Court should grant certiorari in Raulerson and bring Georgia into compliance with the Constitution