Thursday, May 11, 2017

False confessions via BrowZine

False confessions
Kassin, Saul M.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science: Articles in press



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Tuesday, May 9, 2017

Preserved cognitive functions with age are determined by domain-dependent shifts in network responsivity



Preserved cognitive functions with age are determined by domain-dependent shifts in network responsivity

Altmetric: 28 More detail Article | Open Dávid Samu • , Karen L. Campbell • , Kamen A.…

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Kevin McGrew, PhD
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Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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Monday, April 24, 2017

Sharing The reliability of multidimensional neuropsychological measures: from alpha to omega via BrowZine

The reliability of multidimensional neuropsychological measures: from alpha to omega
Watkins, Marley W.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Articles in press



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Sharing Evaluation of multidimensional models of WAIS-IV subtest performance via BrowZine

Evaluation of multidimensional models of WAIS-IV subtest performance
McFarland, Dennis J.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Articles in press



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Saturday, April 1, 2017

Sharing A Negative Flynn Effect in Kuwait: The same effect as in Europe but with seemingly different causes via BrowZine

A Negative Flynn Effect in Kuwait: The same effect as in Europe but with seemingly different causes
Dutton, Edward; Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah; Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed; Blahmar, Tahanei Abdulrahman Muhammad; Hakami, Sultan Mohammed Ahmed
Personality and Individual Differences: Vol. 114 – 2017: 69 - 72

10.1016/j.paid.2017.03.060

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Tuesday, March 28, 2017

SCOTUS blog summary of Moore v Texas Atkins decision

SCOTUSblog


Opinion analysis: A victory for intellectually disabled inmates in Texas

Posted: 28 Mar 2017 10:51 AM PDT

A Texas death-row inmate will get a shot at a new sentence after the Supreme Court ruled today that a state court applied the wrong standards to conclude that he was not intellectually disabled and therefore could be executed. Bobby James Moore was convicted and sentenced to death for shooting a supermarket employee during a 1980 robbery. But Moore argued that he was exempt from execution because he was intellectually disabled – for example, he failed first grade twice, still did not grasp basic principles like telling time at the age of 13, and had suffered a "debilitating" injury when he was hit in the head with a chain and a brick during the battle over integrating public schools.

The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals – the state's court of last resort for criminal cases – rejected Moore's challenge to his death sentence. It relied on its 2004 decision in another case, Ex parte Briseno, involving an inmate's intellectual disability. Briseno used a set of 1992 standards for evaluating intellectual disability, along with several "evidentiary factors" that take into account, among other things, whether the people who knew the inmate best when he was growing up regarded him as intellectually disabled. Moore asked the Supreme Court to weigh in; today the justices, by a vote of 5-3, vacated the Texas court's ruling and sent the case back for a new look.

Justice Ginsburg with opinion in Moore v. Texas (Art Lien)

In an opinion by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg that was joined by Justices Anthony Kennedy, Stephen Breyer, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan, the court acknowledged that its recent decisions on intellectual disability and the death penalty assign to the states the primary responsibility for "the task of developing appropriate ways to enforce" the Constitution's bar on executing intellectually disabled inmates. But, the court explained, those decisions do not give the states free rein: Although states do not have to follow every detail of the most recent medical guide on intellectual disabilities, they cannot disregard the standards in those guides either.

In this case, the court concluded, the Texas court's ruling was wrong in multiple respects. First, the justices reasoned, the Texas court should not have focused just on Moore's IQ score of 74. Instead, the Texas court should have also considered the standard error of measurement – that is, the amount that scores could fluctuate around a "true" score. Looked at that way, Moore's score would range from 69 to 79, which would have required the Texas court to consider other evidence of his possible intellectual disability.

The Texas court's decision was also flawed, the Supreme Court continued, because it did not consider current clinical standards when evaluating how well Moore could handle the demands of everyday life, which is a key factor in determining whether someone is intellectually disabled. For example, the Texas court emphasized Moore's strengths – such as that he "lived on the streets, mowed lawns, and played pool for money" – when clinical standards indicate that it should have focused on his deficits.

The Texas court made the problem even worse, the justices reasoned, when it looked to the "evidentiary factors" outlined in the Briseno case. Those factors were essentially invented by the Texas court, without any basis in either medicine or law; indeed, even Texas itself does not use them to determine whether someone is intellectually disabled in other contexts. Instead, the court stressed, the factors rely on inaccurate stereotypes of the intellectually disabled by laypeople and are intended to reflect a consensus by Texans as to which defendants should or should not be subject to the death penalty. But even if an inmate has a relatively mild disability, the court emphasized, such that the Briseno factors would suggest that he is not exempt from execution, the Constitution bars the states from executing anyone with an intellectual disability.

Chief Justice John Roberts dissented from today's ruling, in an opinion joined by Justices Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas. As an initial matter, Roberts agreed with the majority that the Texas court's reliance on the Briseno evidentiary factors was "incompatible with the Eighth Amendment." But, in Roberts' view, that conclusion was irrelevant, because he would have let stand the Texas court's conclusion that, based on his IQ, Moore was not intellectually disabled. More broadly, Roberts complained that the court's ruling today does not give states enough guidance about how to proceed in similar cases going forward: "States have 'some flexibility' but cannot 'disregard' medical standards. Neither the Court's articulation of this standard nor its application sheds any light on what it means."

After the oral argument, today's decision was not entirely unexpected. But it still represents a big victory for Bobby James Moore and other intellectually disabled inmates on death row in Texas. And it will likely lead to new litigation in the other states that have not adopted legal definitions of intellectual disability that are not specifically based on the current medical standards. Whether it will lead to the confusion at which Roberts hints remains to be seen.

The post Opinion analysis: A victory for intellectually disabled inmates in Texas appeared first on SCOTUSblog.



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Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Breaking News: SCOTUS vacates Moore v Texas Atkins decision: Briseno adaptive behavior standards not consistent with medical consensus




SCOTUS has vacated Moore v Texas which had as the central issue the inappropriate use of the state of Texas's unusual Briseno adaptive behavior standards.

Prior posts regarding this case can be found here. The history of the case before SCOTUS is available at the SCOTUS blog. A copy of the decision can be accessed here.

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Sunday, March 26, 2017

"The Misjudgment of Criminal Responsibility"



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"The Misjudgment of Criminal Responsibility"
// Neuroethics & Law Blog

Recently Published on SSRN: "The Misjudgment of Criminal Responsibility" ROBERT A. BEATTEY, CUNY, John Jay College of Criminal Justice MARK R. FONDACARO, J.D., PH.D., John Jay College - CUNY Generally, a criminal statute must consist of two essential elements: a...
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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist 
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
*********************************************

Saturday, March 25, 2017

Sharing A Synthesis of the Effects of Correctional Education on the Academic Outcomes of Incarcerated Adults via BrowZine

A Synthesis of the Effects of Correctional Education on the Academic Outcomes of Incarcerated Adults
Reed, Deborah K.
Educational Psychology Review: Vol. 27 Issue 3 – 2015: 537 - 558

10.1007/s10648-014-9289-8

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Saturday, March 11, 2017

Sharing Reducing the effect size of the retest effect: Examining different approaches via BrowZine

Reducing the effect size of the retest effect: Examining different approaches
Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus
Intelligence: Articles in press



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Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Sharing Relative Utility of Performance and Symptom Validity Tests via BrowZine

Relative Utility of Performance and Symptom Validity Tests
Copeland, Christopher T.; Mahoney, James J.; Block, Cady K.; Linck, John F.; Pastorek, Nicholas J.; Miller, Brian I.; Romesser, Jennifer M.; Sim, Anita H.
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: Vol. 31 Issue 1 – 2016: 18 - 22

10.1093/arclin/acv065

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Sharing Stability in Test-Usage Practices of Clinical Neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada Over a 10-Year Period: A Follow-Up Survey of INS and NAN Members via BrowZine

Stability in Test-Usage Practices of Clinical Neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada Over a 10-Year Period: A Follow-Up Survey of INS and NAN Members
Rabin, Laura A.; Paolillo, Emily; Barr, William B.
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: Vol. 31 Issue 3 – 2016: 206 - 230

10.1093/arclin/acw007

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Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Impact of Neuroscience and Evolving Standards of Decency on Juvenile Sentencing | Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law



Impact of Neuroscience and Evolving Standards of Decency on Juvenile Sentencing | Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law

Discussion This series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions has…

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Saturday, March 4, 2017

Sharing Multi-group and hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fifth Edition: What does it measure? via BrowZine

Multi-group and hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fifth Edition: What does it measure?
Reynolds, Matthew R.; Keith, Timothy Z.
Intelligence: Articles in press



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Friday, March 3, 2017

Sharing Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without a “Gold Standard”. via BrowZine

Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without a "Gold Standard".
Mossman, Douglas; Wygant, Dustin B.; Gervais, Roger O.; Hart, Kathleen J.
Psychological Assessment: Articles in press



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Friday, February 3, 2017

Court Decision: Another Hall v Florida related remand in Florida: Nixon v Florida (2017)




Yet another remand for an ID hearing in Florida as a result of Hall v Florida 2014 decision. This time Nixon v Florida (click here for remand order). Prior information regarding this case can be found here.


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Wednesday, January 25, 2017

Research Bytes: Specificity rates for non-clinical, bilingual, Mexican Americans on three popular performance validity measures via BrowZine

Specificity rates for non-clinical, bilingual, Mexican Americans on three popular performance validity measures
Gasquoine, Philip G.; Weimer, Amy A.; Amador, Arnoldo
The Clinical Neuropsychologist: Articles in press



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Research Bytes: Cross-Cultural Feigning Assessment: A Systematic Review of Feigning Instruments Used With Linguistically, Ethnically, and Culturally Diverse Samples. via BrowZine

Cross-Cultural Feigning Assessment: A Systematic Review of Feigning Instruments Used With Linguistically, Ethnically, and Culturally Diverse Samples.
Nijdam-Jones, Alicia; Rosenfeld, Barry
Psychological Assessment: Articles in press



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Tuesday, January 24, 2017

Research Byte: Is ability-based emotional intelligence impervious to the Flynn effect? A cross-temporal meta-analysis (2001–2015) via BrowZine

Is ability-based emotional intelligence impervious to the Flynn effect? A cross-temporal meta-analysis (2001–2015)
Pietschnig, Jakob; Gittler, Georg
Intelligence: Articles in press



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Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Arboleda Ortiz Atkins death penalty commuted by Obama



The press is all a buzz about President Obama's commutation of Chelsey Manning's prison sentence (for leaking classified information).  What has flown under the radar among Obama's commutations is his commutation of Arboleda Ortiz's Atkins-related death penalty to life without the possibility of parole.  I have previously refrained from commenting on this case given that I provided expert declarations for Mr. Ortiz's defense team.  In fact, this was my first ever Atkin's case.  Prior FYI posts re: Ortiz can be found here.

A brief ABA Journal article about this commutation can be found here.  It is my understanding that this was the first such presidential grant since 1999.  I will provide more details as they become available.   






Tuesday, January 17, 2017

The nationwide register‐based prevalence of intellectual disability during childhood and adolescence



The nationwide register‐based prevalence of intellectual disability during childhood and adolescence

Abstract Background Many studies have evaluated the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) by…

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Sunday, January 15, 2017

Research Byte: Normality: Part descriptive, part prescriptive via BrowZine

Normality: Part descriptive, part prescriptive
Bear, Adam; Knobe, Joshua
Cognition: Articles in press



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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Saturday, January 14, 2017

Disturbances in the salience network may be common mechanism for multiple psychiatric disorders



Yet more support for the importance of understanding brain networks.  I have also suggested the importance of the interplay of the salience network, the default network and the central executive control network in my MindHub Pub 2 white paper....in an attempt to explain the possible mechanisms of a neurotechnology that appears to make demands on attentional control.  Report can be found here....http://www.themindhub.com/research-reports

"Disturbances in the salience network may be a common etiology underlying many psychiatric disorders."

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Thursday, January 12, 2017

What is the Flynn Effect, and how does it change our understanding of IQ? via BrowZine

What is the Flynn Effect, and how does it change our understanding of IQ?
Shenk, David
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science: Vol. 8 Issue 1-2 – 2017: e1366

10.1002/wcs.1366

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Tuesday, December 27, 2016

Remembering the "individual" in individual differences research: A quote to note

I just ran across this statement in a recent article (see below). It served as a reminder of something I have always preached, but from-time-to-time, tend to forget as I analyze cognitive ability test data, post research articles, or suggest hypotheses regarding test score differences---be it here at this blog, in a journal article, book, book chapter, or professional presentation. The point being that we must remain vigilant in remembering the "individual" in individual differences research.

The privileged unit of analysis in psychology is the individual (Nesselroade, Gerstorf, Hardy, & Ram, 2007). Nevertheless, many data-analytic approaches coarsely aggregate data and tacitly assume group-average models to hold and to be interpreted in lieu of more fine-grained and, ultimately, person-specific models. For example, when a group of persons show an average increase of performance in a learning task, this does not mean that all persons follow a pattern of change similar to this average. In fact, none of the persons may be well represented by the average trend. In a similar vein, Tucker (1966) argued that the consideration of differences instead of averages will allow us to gain more information about the nature of basic functions underlying behavior. Ever since, researchers have been questioning coarse aggregation of data across persons (e.g., Lamiell, 1981; Nesselroade & Molenaar, 1999) as the estimates of averaged effects may not be representative of any single individual. In fact, strong inference about intra-individual variation from interindividual variation is only possible under the ergodic assumption (Molenaar, 2004), which assumes that the group model represents each individual's dynamics (homogeneity) and that those dynamics have constant characteristics in time (stationarity). In the same vein, Simpson (1951) pointed out that a statistical relationship observed in a population could be reversed within subgroups that form the population. For instance, “It may be universally true that drinking coffee increases one's level of neuroticism; then it may still be the case that people who drink more coffee are less neurotic” (Borsboom, Kievit, Cervone, & Hood, 2009, p. 72). Simpson's paradox may arise whenever inferences are drawn across different explanatory levels, for example, from populations to the individual, or from cross-sectional data to intraindividual change over time (see Kievit, Frankenhuis, Waldorp, & Borsboom, 2013, for further illustrations). Hence, there still is a need for focusing on individuals or subgroups of
individuals to more accurately model individual process idiosyncrasies and similarities across persons. Particularly, in light of large-scale empirical data sets, aggregation is more likely to lead to models with low informative value about individual underlying processes as it is often difficult to expand prior hypotheses to account for the large number of potential explanatory variables.


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What do IQ researchers really think about the Flynn Effect?

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Monday, December 26, 2016

Research Bytes: The Flynn effect in the Czech Republic via BrowZine

The Flynn effect in the Czech Republic
Laciga, Jiří; Cígler, Hynek
Intelligence: Articles in press



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Saturday, December 24, 2016

Research Bytes: Overlap Between the General Factor of Personality and Emotional Intelligence: A Meta-Analysis. via BrowZine

Overlap Between the General Factor of Personality and Emotional Intelligence: A Meta-Analysis.
van der Linden, Dimitri; Pekaar, Keri A.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A.; Dunkel, Curtis S.; Petrides, K. V.
Psychological Bulletin: Articles in press



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