Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Thomas on Substantive Habeas [feedly]


 
 
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Thomas on Substantive Habeas
Kimberly Thomas (University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - University of Michigan Law School) has posted Substantive Habeas (American University Law Review, Vol. 63, 2014, Forthcoming) on SSRN. Here is the abstract: Substantive Habeas identifies the U.S. Supreme Court's recent...



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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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Tuesday, November 26, 2013

The CHC taxonomy of human cognitive abilities--a visual summary/overview

I was reviewing some old PPT slides and thought I would share a few. These slides remind us that the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model is a taxonomy of human cognitive abilities. An important taxonomy that has been driving most contemporary IQ test development and revision during the past 20 years. Click on images to enlarge.

 

 

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Sharing Neurolaw via BrowZine

Neurolaw
Belcher, Annabelle; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, Vol. 1 Issue 1 – 2010: 18 - 22

10.1002/wcs.8

University of Minnesota Users:
https://www.lib.umn.edu/log.phtml?url=http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/wcs.8

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/wcs.8

Sharing The rule-dependence model explains the commonalities between the Flynn effect and IQ gains via retesting via BrowZine

The rule-dependence model explains the commonalities between the Flynn effect and IQ gains via retesting
Armstrong, Elijah L.; Woodley, Michael A.
Learning and Individual Differences, Vol. 29 – 2014: 41 - 49

10.1016/j.lindif.2013.10.009

University of Minnesota Users:
https://www.lib.umn.edu/log.phtml?url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1041608013001556

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1041608013001556

Article: High Court May Clarify Rule on Impairment and Death Penalty





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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
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SCOTUS to rule of IQ related issued (SEM) in Atkins MR/ID Florida death penalty case

Kevin McGrew (@iqmobile)
High Court May Clarify Rule on Impairment and Death Penalty nyti.ms/1dmUaSL

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Wednesday, November 20, 2013

Supreme Court Declines to Hear Alabama Case on Judicial Death Sentences [feedly]


 
 
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Supreme Court Declines to Hear Alabama Case on Judicial Death Sentences

The U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear an appeal from Alabama death row inmate Mario Woodward, who was sentenced to death in 2008 despite a jury's 8-4 recommendation for a life sentence. Alabama is one of only three states that allow a judge to override a jury's sentencing recommendation for life to impose a death sentence; Florida and Delaware also allow the practice, but death sentences by judicial override are very rare in those states. Justice Sonia Sotomayor dissented from the Court's decision, saying that the Court should reconsider Alabama's death sentencing procedure. In an opinion joined by Justice Stephen Breyer, Sotomayor said that 26 of the 27 cases since 2000 in which judges imposed death sentences over a jury's recommendation for life came from Alabama. The other case came from Delaware, but was overturned by the Delaware Supreme Court. Sotomayor wrote, "What could explain Alabama judges' distinctive proclivity for imposing death sentences in cases where a jury has already rejected that penalty?...The only answer that is supported by empirical evidence is one that, in my view, casts a cloud of illegitimacy over the criminal justice system: Alabama judges, who are elected in partisan proceedings, appear to have succumbed to electoral pressures."

(R. Barnes, "Sotomayor questions Alabama death-penalty process," Washington Post, November 18, 2013.) See U.S. Supreme Court. Read the full dissent.





Thursday, November 14, 2013

McGrew (2009) CHC article # 1 cited article in Intelligence since 2008

Warning, this is a blow-my-own-horn post.

Today I visited the ISIR journal of Intelligence web page---the premiere journal for intelligence scholars. I was pleased to see that my 2009 publication, "CHC theory and the human cognitive abilities project: Standing on the shoulders of the giants of psychometric intelligence research" has been, according to Scopus, the number one cited article in the journal since 2008. I am humbled and thankfull. If it was not for Doug Detterman's invitation to write this invited article, I would not now have this honor. The last time I checked, many many months ago, it was at #4. This would make my mom and dad proud. A copy of the article can be downloaded here.

 

Article: 2014 Call for AAIDD Presentations


Monday, November 11, 2013

Article: US courts see rise in defendants blaming their brains for criminal acts


US courts see rise in defendants blaming their brains for criminal acts
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/10/us-rise-defendants-blame-brains-crimes-neuroscience

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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, IAP
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Thursday, November 7, 2013

Sharing Memory functioning in individuals with traumatic brain injury: An examination of the Wechsler Memory Scale–Fourth Edition (WMS–IV) via BrowZine

Memory functioning in individuals with traumatic brain injury: An examination of the Wechsler Memory Scale–Fourth Edition (WMS–IV)
Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Grech, Julie; Tulsky, David S.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 35 Issue 9 – 2013: 906 - 914

10.1080/13803395.2013.833178

University of Minnesota Users:
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Sharing Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition profiles and their relationship to self-reported outcome following traumatic brain injury via BrowZine

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition profiles and their relationship to self-reported outcome following traumatic brain injury
Harman-Smith, Yasmin E.; Mathias, Jane L.; Bowden, Stephen C.; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.; Bigler, Erin D.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 35 Issue 8 – 2013: 785 - 798

10.1080/13803395.2013.824554

University of Minnesota Users:
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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13803395.2013.824554

Age-related change in Wechsler IQ norms after adjustment for the Flynn effect: Estimates from three computational models [feedly]


 
 
Shared via feedly // published on JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY - Web of Knowledge // visit site
Age-related change in Wechsler IQ norms after adjustment for the Flynn effect: Estimates from three computational models
Title: Age-related change in Wechsler IQ norms after adjustment for the Flynn effect: Estimates from three computational models
Author(s): Agbayani, Kristina A.; Hiscock, Merrill
Source: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 35 (6): 642-654 JUL 2013
IDS#: 238BH. ISSN: 1380-3395




Saturday, November 2, 2013

RadioLab explores criminal culpability and the brain [feedly]


 
 
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RadioLab explores criminal culpability and the brain

Debate: Moral justice versus risk forecasting


After Kevin had brain surgery for his epilepsy, he developed an uncontrollable urge to download child pornography. If the surgery engendered Kl├╝ver-Bucy Syndrome, compromising his ability to control his impulses, should he be less morally culpable than another offender?

Blame is a fascinating episode of RadioLab that explores the debate over free will versus biology as destiny. Nita Farahany, professor of law and philosophy at Duke, is documenting an explosion in the use of brain science in court. But it's a slippery slope: Today, brain scanning technology only enables us to see the most obvious of physical defects, such as tumors. But one day, argues neuroscientist David Eagleman, we will be able to map the brain with sufficient focus to see that all behavior is a function of one perturbation or another.

Eagleman and guest Amy Phenix (of Static-99 fame) both think that instead of focusing on culpability, the criminal justice system should focus on risk of recidivism, as determined by statistical algorithms.

But hosts Jad and Robert express skepticism about this mechanistic approach to justice. They wonder whether a technocratic, risk-focused society is really one we want to live in.

The idea of turning legal decision-making over to a computer program is superficially alluring, promising to take prejudice and emotionality out of the equation. But the notion of scientific objectivity is illusory. Computer algorithms are nowhere near as value-neutral as their proponents claim. Implicit values are involved in choosing which factors to include in a model, humans introduce scoring bias (as I have reported previously in reference to the Static-99 and the PCL-R), and even supposedly neutral factors such as zip codes that are used in crime-forecasting software are coded markers of race and class. 

But that's just on a technical level. On a more philosophical level, the notion that scores on various risk markers should determine an individual's fate is not only unfair, punishing the person for acts not committed, but reflects a deeply pessimistic view of humanity. People are not just bundles of unthinking synapses. They are sentient beings, capable of change.

In addition, by placing the onus for future behavior entirely on the individual, the risk-factor-as-destiny approach convenient removes society's responsibility for mitigating the environmental causes of crime, and negates any hope of rehabilitation.

As discussed in an illuminating article on the Circles of Support and Accountability (or COSA) movement in Canada, former criminals face a catch-22 situation in which society refuses to reintegrate them, thereby elevating their risk of remaining alienated and ultimately reoffending. Yet when surrounded by friendship and support, former offenders are far less likely to reoffend, studies show.

The hour-long RadioLab episode  concludes with a segment on forgiveness, featuring the unlikely friendship that developed between an octogenarian and the criminal who sexually assaulted and strangled his daughter.

That provides a fitting ending. Because ultimately, as listener Molly G. from Maplewood, New Jersey comments on the segment's web page, justice is a moral and ethical construct. It's not something that can, or should, be decided by scientists.

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The episode is highly recommended. (Click HERE to listen online or download the podcast.)